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Methylene Blue was created in 1876, a phenothiazine derivative and a parent compound of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine.  It was the 1st drug treatment for malaria in 1891.  It was the first fully synthetic drug used in medicine and was "grandfathered" at the time of the creation of the FDA, as it had been successfully used for many years by that time.

Since then, it has been used in the industrial form as an industrial dye, as an anti-fungal and anti-protozoan agent in aquaculture (fish farming), and as biological staining in tissue analysis.  It has known antipsychotic and antidepressant effects since the 1890s.  Phenothiazine dyes, including methylene blue, have been known to have virucidal properties for over 70 years.


 It has been FDA approved for:

  1. Acquired Methemoglobinemia when given in a low dose, worsening when given at a high dose

  2. Potassium Cyanide and carbon monoxide poisoning since 1933.  It is an antidote for anything that displaces oxygen in the mitochondria

  3. As an antibiotic for recurrent UTIs

  4. Reversal of chemotherapy ifosfamide neuropsychiatric toxicity



  • Auto-oxidizing agent (acts as electron donor and acceptor)

  • It is a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI)

  • Crosses the blood-brain barrier and, therefore, can have effects on neuronal function

  • Improves mitochondrial function by optimizing cellular energetics.  It does this by rejuvenating the electron transport chain (ETC) by donating electrons, which kick starts the ETC efficiency by augmenting consumption of O2

  • Increases nitric oxide (NO) formation and resulting increase in blood flow

  • Downregulates reactive oxygen species (ROS) and superoxide formation, which are prooxidants

  • Leucomethylene metabolite acts as an antioxidant to address ROS

  • Decreases DNA damage by reducing prooxidant formation that results in cell-accelerated aging and death

  • Inhibits Tau protein formation in the brain

  • Anti-viral

  • Prolonged lifespan in human embryonic lung fibroblasts by 50%

  • Anti-inflammatory

  • Cytoprotective mechanisms:

    • Increases subunit 2 of cytochrome c oxidase (complex 4 of electron transport chain) by >30%

    • AMPK activator for 1-48 hours

    • Increases cell resistance to oxidants

    • Prevents cellular senescence induced by oxidants

    • Induces cytoprotective pathway Keap/Nrf2

    • Induces PGC1 alpha and SURF1

    • Improves mitochondrial function via complex 4

    • Increases mitogenesis

    • Prevents telomere erosión

    • Increases NAD/NADH by 63%, optimizing cellular Redox energetics




Anti-aging strategies focus on treating the whole person, promoting your long-term, total-body health, and not just responding to symptoms and diseases as they arise. At Colorado Ageless Institute located in Castle Rock, Colorado, Dr. Claude Fortin offers this holistic approach, to promote optimal health and longevity. To learn about how you can restore health by emphasizing the core of your body’s functions, call the office to request an appointment.

Claude Fortin MD, FAARFM, ABAARM

Anti-Aging & Restorative Medicine


Castle Rock, CO 

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